Reaching for the human frontier, robotics is vigorously engaged in the growing challenges of new emerging domains. Interacting, exploring, and working with. The second edition of this handbook provides a state-of-the-art cover view on the Front Matter. Pages PDF · Robotics and the Handbook. Bruno Siciliano. Handbook. Springer of Robotics. Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib (Eds.) With DVD-ROM, Figures, in four color and 84 Tables.
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Springer Handbook of Robotics. Edited by B. Siciliano, O. Khatib. WITH. DVD. 7 Research- and application-oriented handbook. 7 Timely and up-to-date. PDF | 20+ minutes read | On Jan 1, , D Floreano and others published Springer Handbook of Robotics. The main challenge here is to detect an instance of an object and recognize or categorize it. Since in robotics applications an. 3-D Vision and Visual SLAM.
Someone had suggested to Terman that it would be prudent if the mathematically oriented McCarthy had some contact with mechanical designers. Since I was the only one on the Stanford faculty whose specialty was mechanism design, Terman decided to phone me, even though we had never met and I was a young assistant professor fresh out of graduate school with only 2 years at Stanford. Robotics became one of the pillars of my entire academic career, and I have maintained my interest in teaching and researching the subject through to the present day.
The modern history of robotic manipulation dates from the late s when servoed arms were developed in connection with master—slave manipulator systems used to protect technicians handling nuclear materials.
Developments in this area have continued to the present day. However, in the early s there was very little academic or commercial activity in robotics. The first academic activity was the thesis of H.
Ernst, in , at MIT. He used a slave arm equipped with touch sensors, and ran it under computer control.
Springer Handbook of Robotics
The idea in his study was to use the information from the touch sensors to guide the arm. There were a few attempts at commercial manipulators, primarily in connection with part production in the automotive industry.
There were also a few mechanical devices developed as hand, leg, and arm prosthetics, and, a bit later, some exoskeletal devices to enhance human performance. In those days there were no microprocessors. So, these devices were either without computer control, or tethered to a remote so-called minicomputer, or even a mainframe computer. Initially, some in the computer science community felt that computers were powerful enough to control any mechanical device and make it perform satisfactorily.
We Bernard Roth quickly learned that this was not to Professor of Mechanical be the case. We started on a twofold Engineering Stanford University track. One was to develop particular devices for SAIL, so that hardware demonstrations and proof-of-concept systems were available for the fledgling robotics community to experiment with. The other track, which was more or less moonlighted from the work at SAIL, was the development of a basic mechanical science of robotics.
I had a strong feeling that a meaningful science could be developed, and that it would be best to think in terms of general concepts rather than concentrate exclusively on particular devices. Fortuitously, it turned out that the two tracks supported each other very naturally and, most importantly, the right students were interested in doing their research in this area.
Hardware developments proved to be specific examples of more general concepts, and the students were able to develop both the hardware and the theory. Originally, we downloadd an arm in order to get started quickly. A group at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, in Los Angeles, was selling a tongue-switchcontrolled motor-driven exoskeleton arm to assist patients without muscular control of their arms. We downloadd one of these, and connected it to a time-shared PDP-6 computer. The device was named Butterfingers; it was our first experimental robot.
Several films demonstrating visual feedback control, block stacking tasks, and obstacle avoidance were made with Butterfingers as the star performer.
The first manipulator that we designed on our own was known simply as the Hydraulic Arm. As its name implies, it was powered by hydraulics.
Springer Handbook of Robotics
The idea was VI to build a very fast arm. We designed special rotary actuators, and the arm worked well.
It became the experimental platform for testing the first ever dynamic analysis and time-optimal control of a robotic arm. However, its use was limited since the design speeds were much faster than required due to the limitations of the computational, planning, and sensing capabilities that were common at that time.
We made an attempt to develop a truly digital arm. This led to a snake-like structure named the Orm the Norwegian word for snake. The Orm had several stages, each with an array of inflatable pneumatic actuators that were either fully extended or fully contracted. The basic idea was that, even though only a finite number of positions in the workspace could be reached, these would be sufficient if there were a large number of positions.
A small prototype proof-of-concept Orm was developed. It led to the realization that this type of arm would not really serve the SAIL community. The first truly functional arm from our group was designed by Victor Scheinman, who was a graduate student at the time.
It was the very successful Stanford Arm, of which over ten copies were made as research tools to be used in various university, government, and industrial laboratories. The arm had six independently driven joints; all driven by computer-controlled servoed, DC electric motors.
One joint was telescoping prismatic and the other five were rotary revolute.
Table of contents
Whereas the geometry of Butterfingers required an iterative solution of the inverse kinematics, the geometric configuration of the Stanford Arm was chosen so that the inverse kinematics could be programmed in any easy-to-use time-efficient closed form.
Furthermore, the mechanical design was specifically made to be compatible with the limitations inherent in timeshare computer control. Various end-effectors could be attached to act as hands. On our version, the hand was in the form of a vise-grip jaw, with two sliding fingers driven by a servoed actuator hence, a true seventh degree of freedom.
It also had a specially designed six-axis wrist force sensor. Victor Scheinman went on to develop other important robots: the first was a small humanoid arm with six revolute joints. Modular Robots. Biomimetic Robots. Wheeled Robots. Underwater Robots. Flying Robots.
Stowers, Kostas Alexis, Markus W. Achtelik, David Lentink et al. Bradley J. Nelson, Lixin Dong, Fumihito Arai. Force and Tactile Sensing. Sonar Sensing.
Range Sensing. Visual Object Class Recognition. Visual Servoing. Multisensor Data Fusion. Hugh Durrant-Whyte, Thomas C. Motion for Manipulation Tasks. Contact Modeling and Manipulation. Imin Kao, Kevin M.
Lynch, Joel W. Domenico Prattichizzo, Jeffrey C. Cooperative Manipulation.
Mobility and Manipulation. Front Matter Pages i-lix. Pages Front Matter Pages Mechanisms and Actuation.
Springer Handbook of Robotics
Sensing and Estimation. Henrik I. Christensen, Gregory D.
Motion Planning. Motion Control.
Force Control. Robotic Systems Architectures and Programming. AI Reasoning Methods for Robotics. Performance Evaluation and Design Criteria. Kinematically Redundant Manipulators. Parallel Mechanisms and Robots. Robots with Flexible Elements. Model Identification. Robot Hands.
Legged Robots. Wheeled Robots.Today, it is not generally included when we list the robots in our world. At the same time that the theory was being developed, there was a parallel, although somewhat separate, growth of industrial robotics.
Strong commercial development occurred in Japan and Europe, and there was also continued growth in the USA. At first blush, the hardware of legs, arms, and hands may look quite different from each other, yet they share a common set of attributes that allows them to all be treated with the same, or closely related, aspects of the fundamentals described in the first layer. Several films demonstrating visual feedback control, block stacking tasks, and obstacle avoidance were made with Butterfingers as the star performer.
Motion Control. The Orm had several stages, each with an array of inflatable pneumatic actuators that were either fully extended or fully contracted. Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance. Pages
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